Fragrance Categorization: Redefining what is Niche, Designer, Drug-store

Andrewthecologneguy

Basenotes Plus
Basenotes Plus
Dec 26, 2006
While combing through Basenotes, I stumbled upon this thread from a little over 8 years ago, and I realized that 'we' as a community still perhaps do not agree on how we categorize certain fragrances. As such, I want to get opinions in order to define (at least for the next few years maybe) what terms apply and for what reasons. I'll start; looking for your thoughts, suggestions or how you classify fragrances.

Main Category:
Designer: from a fashion designer who's main wares are clothing

Sub-category:
Mass Market Designer: the lower end of Designer brands, sometimes just a licensed name. Ex.: Tommy Hilfiger, Perry Ellis, Zara
Premium Designer: the higher echelon of the Designer world. Ex.: Gucci, Dior
Premium Plus Designer: presented as "private" or "collection"; unknown to the average person. Ex.: Armani Prive, Dior Exclusifs

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Main Category:
Niche: from a house that only makes fragrance...and cosmetics?

Sub-category:
Indy Niche: started by an enthusiast with the means to market their creations. Ex.: Slumberhouse, Happyland Studio
Nouveau Niche: new niche within the last decade. Ex.: Bond No. 9, Parfum de Marly
Perfumer Niche: eponymous offerings from a person in the industry. Ex.: Jo Malone, Ramon Monegal
Heritage Niche: unknown to the average person but has been around 'forever'. Ex.: Creed, Guerlain, Roger and Gallet
Mass Market Niche: niche that aims at a wider audience perhaps with desire to be a household name Ex.: Tom Ford, Creed

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Main Category:
Inspired: offerings that exist solely because of the success of another fragrance

Sub-category:
Cheap Clone: packaging states - "Our version of..." or the name alludes to what is being copied Ex.: Savage, Firenight
Indy Clone: often claims to be better. Ex.: Copy Cat, Dua, Perfume Parlour
Oil Clone: oil-based approximations; some have gained notoriety. Ex.: Surrati, Hayward Ent., Ikots[/I]
Numbers Clone: sold with a number on the bottle to indicate which clone it is. Ex.: Eclat, Federico Mahora, Shaik

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Main Category:
Drug Store: sold exclusively via a drug store/pharmacy chain; limited to local market where the chain exists

Sub-category:
Classic: have been around for decades and has evolved little. Ex.: Brut, Aspen, Old Spice, Toni Gard, 4711
Nouveau: created to be a drug store brand with no intentions to be more than that. Ex.: are there any?

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Main Category:
Multi-Level Marketing: started as a means for housewives to have a small business selling cosmetics.

Sub-category:
Classic: have been around for decades and are well known Ex.: AVON, Mary Kay
Nouveau: created to challenge the existing success stories Ex.: Jafra

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Main Category:
Local Market: typically sold exclusively to a local market though sometimes found in other markets due to e-commerce.

Sub-category:
UAE/Dubai/Arab House; Ex.: Rasasi, Al Haramain
Parisian/French House; Ex.: Jean Arthes, Ulric de Varens

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Main Category:
Celebri-scent: mainly a cash grab capitalizing purely on fame; the fragrances mostly are of average to low quality

Sub-category:
Movie Star Ex.: Antonio Banderas
Singer Ex.: Beyonce, Ariana Grande
Athlete Ex.: Michael Jordan
Socialite Ex.: Paris Hilton
 
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Sheik Yerbouti

oakmoss fiend
Basenotes Plus
Jul 20, 2017
Designer - Companies that were historically involved in fashion that also produce fragrance
ie Chanel, Dior, YSL, Fendi, Versace

Niche (Mainstream) - Companies that tend to centre their business around fragrance, sometimes solely, but produce en-masse and are usually found in department stores
ie Creed, MFK, Jo Malone, Acqua di Parma

Niche (Independents/ Indie/ Artisanal) - Usually smaller operating producers (often one-man-bands) that make what they want to, usually but not always free of current trends with a particular niché preference like Vintage styled, or, all natural ingredients etc
ie Tauer, Rogue, Ensar, Areej, Bortnikoff

Niche (‘Exclusive Luxe’ <only through limited distribution and price>) - Usually even more limited distribution and excessively priced. Sometimes glitz over substance.
ie Roja, Xerjoff, Henry Jacques

Celebrity - Fragrance usually produced with a ‘celebrity’s’ name to it as a way to get more PR exposure and another revenue stream.
(Side note- Most celebrities don’t wear their self-named scent.) Varying degrees of quality.
ie Paris Hilton, SJP, Usher

Cheapie - Usually found in the bargain bin where a conglomorate has bought an older but well known brand and excessively stripped these well known fragrances that are now cheapened for mass consumption.
ie Cool Water, Paco Rabanne PH, CK One
Sub-category Pharmacy /drugstore classics ie Old Spice, Brut, Tabac

Hybrids - Fall into more than one category already listed.
Amouage, Parfums de Nicolai

Clones - Companies that usually try to recreate the most popular moneymaking scents of the day by reverse engineering using GCMS. Sometimes try to resurrect extinct fragrance lines.
ie Armaf, Parfums Vintage, Alexandria, Dua
 

Sheik Yerbouti

oakmoss fiend
Basenotes Plus
Jul 20, 2017
I’ll also add that the categories and classifications are just another way to separate out one thing from another but they don’t really have any usefulness compared to if someone said ‘I’m looking for a natural smelling rose fragrance for my 30 year old wife’.

Scent is king so finding ways to describe the indescribable is somewhat futile but also more useful I think.
 

Brooks Otterlake

Basenotes Plus
Basenotes Plus
Feb 12, 2019
In my mind, there are essentially three buckets: designer, luxe-niche, and artisanal/independent.

Designer and luxe-niche aren't mutually exclusive; they're largely separated by pricepoint (rule of thumb: MSRP under $1.5/ml versus over $1.5/ml).

Tom Ford, for instance, falls wholly in the "luxe-niche" bucket, but is a designer house through and though. It's an Estée Lauder subsidiary with a lot of reciprocal influence with other Estée Lauder lines, but is marketed at a higher pricepoint.
 

Scents And Sense

Basenotes Dependent
May 16, 2020
Interesting categories.

Here are mine.

Designer. (Dior, Prada, Gucci, Tom Ford, etc.)
Exclusive Lines. (Les Exclusifs, Armani Prive, Private Collection, etc.)
Mainstream niche. (Jo Malone, Kilian, Roja, Acqua di Parma, Amouage, etc.)
Indipendent/artisan niche. (Rogue, Tauer, Nicolai, Parfums d'Empire, etc.)
Classic brands (Guerlain, Caron, Creed, etc.)
 

Castingshadows

Basenotes Dependent
Apr 14, 2020
All of it is useless. The only categories that matter are:

1. Smells good.
2. Does not smell good.

I agree with this. I just enjoy perfumes that smell great regardless of how they’re made or marketed. I’m more interested in what the fragrance is considered like is it a woody chypre, an oriental amber, an aromatic Fougere and so on!
 

slniecko

Super Member
May 19, 2013
Mine:

1. Drugstore
2. Mainstream (available usually at chains as Sephora, Douglas....)
3. Exclusives (usually "better" lines of mainstream - Armani Privé, Dior Collection, Exclusives de Chanel...)
4. Classic houses (Guerlain, Caron, Molinard, Floris...)
3. Niche
4. Indies (made by individuals in small batches, you never know what will be available and when - e.g. Slumberhouse, Dasein...and lot of smaller manufacturer)
5. Local (based on local ingredients or markets)

But it is not very strict, because I feel, that there are lot of fragrances/brands somewhere on the borders of categories, or can be in more categories. For example Guerlain - classic house, with both mainstream and exclusive lines, etc...
 

Ken_Russell

Basenotes Institution
Jan 21, 2006
The more do know and test fragrances, the more difficult it becomes to separate more clearly between the personal definition of niche, mass market and/or designer.
Having often encountered budget and/or designer fragrances with niche quality, same with affordable fragrances by obscure companies released not just with little or no involvement with fashion labels, but also with niche tier performance and creativity.
 

ultravisitor

Basenotes Dependent
Nov 4, 2014
The more do know and test fragrances, the more difficult it becomes to separate more clearly between the personal definition of niche, mass market and/or designer.
Having often encountered budget and/or designer fragrances with niche quality, same with affordable fragrances by obscure companies released not just with little or no involvement with fashion labels, but also with niche tier performance and creativity.

Well, I think it's a mistake to equate niche with higher quality, but many people do that. Just because a particular house focuses only on fragrances doesn't mean they're any better at what they're doing. All it means is that they have a slightly different focus than many other houses.
 

Scents And Sense

Basenotes Dependent
May 16, 2020
Well, I think it's a mistake to equate niche with higher quality, but many people do that. Just because a particular house focuses only on fragrances doesn't mean they're any better at what they're doing. All it means is that they have a slightly different focus than many other houses.
This. People often mistake high prices for high quality as well.
 

Bavard

Wearing Perfume Right Now
Moderator
Basenotes Plus
Jul 20, 2015
Designer/Mass Market

Niche/Limited Distribution

In my mind, there are essentially three buckets: designer, luxe-niche, and artisanal/independent.

Or with these subcategories for niche. I wouldn't say "luxe," though. It feels misleading. "Glam" would fit better, maybe, but I wouldn't say that either. I'm undecided on the right term.

Great idea for a thread.
 
Aug 23, 2020
I never understood what this conversation is trying to accomplish. Too many people want their own definition of things, so you'll never convince a group of people to change their "standard." My understanding is the same as when I first started collecting four years ago - Designer makes things other than fragrances (mainly fashion items like clothes, bags, etc.) and Niche focuses solely on fragrances. There's no need to create more than that. Are there subcategories? Sure, if you want to say "high-end designer" or "indie", but those are both under the larger umbrella of Designer and Niche. Nothing wrong with simplifying things.
 

Mak-7

Basenotes Dependent
Sep 19, 2019
Why do we care? Seriously, I’m asking. Not trying to be snarky.

In general, I like the “smells good/suits me” and “does not smell good/does not suit me” approach.

Because when you have something well defined, it makes easier to understand what people are talking about.
Your approach "good" and "bad" doesnt describe anything to me. Good relative to what? Bad in what way?

For example, today i watched brief video of cologne guy 76 or something, and he said" i will review black owned brands, and i will go extra mile to represent these brands and put them out there" so i am interested, i am listening. He pulls one sample, sprays it and says " its nice, i like it. Its fresh...." pulls another one, sprays and reviews as follows" its high quality, well blended. White florals" i stopped watching. Why? He is useless. Neither he represented brands, nor he reviewed anything properly, and what made me "pfff" at him is his phrase that " other perfume houses send me stuff as they are genuinely interested in what i have to say". Why would they listen to someone who cant even review?

So niche would describe independent houses doing high quality, artistic stuff without following trends. Indie would make all natural perfumes, where quality can very. Designer would usually mean basic mass appealing fragrances without highest quality ingredients. And when you define to which category your perfume relates to, and then you say that you like it, i can then think what were my experiences with that category, and if it is worth for me to even test it.

Hope this clarifies things.
 

PStoller

I’m not old, I’m vintage.
Basenotes Plus
Aug 1, 2019
Because when you have something well defined, it makes easier to understand what people are talking about.
Your approach "good" and "bad" doesn’t describe anything to me. Good relative to what? Bad in what way?
In general, I agree with you about well-defined terms. The problem is, “designer” and “niche” are less informative than “fresh” and “white florals” regarding how fragrances smell. So, what are we really describing?
 

ClockworkAlice

Cakesniffer
Basenotes Plus
Jan 3, 2019
In general, I agree with you about well-defined terms. The problem is, “designer” and “niche” are less informative than “fresh” and “white florals” regarding how fragrances smell. So, what are we really describing?

I think it's about describing price, exclusivity and perceived "higher standard/higher status" first and foremost.
That's why people seem to flinch when categorizing a house like Guerlain - it fits all or at least most of the criteria for designer houses, and still people want to see it as much more than that because in their minds "designer" is a little condescending compared to what "niche", "heritage" or "historical" conveys.
Why they see it as condescending is another question.
 

PStoller

I’m not old, I’m vintage.
Basenotes Plus
Aug 1, 2019
The problem is, “designer” and “niche” are less informative than “fresh” and “white florals” regarding how fragrances smell. So, what are we really describing?

I think it's about describing price, exclusivity and perceived "higher standard/higher status" first and foremost.
Precisely my point.
 

Varanis Ridari

The Scented Devil
Basenotes Plus
Oct 17, 2012
Categorization is a double-edge sword. One one hand, it's useful for organization and classification to help better navigate a large market (or a large collection for that matter), but on the other hand, can lead to weird flexes a la social classism like "I only wear the finest niche fragrances" and then all the associated hubris. It's always a tricky balance to use categories as tools to help understand the kind of variety you have rather than becoming an enormous tool when you insist on assigning value sight unseen based on a preconceived notions of classification.

Also, current terms are really vague and inadequate, but used because they have become something of a standard practice in the community.

I use the following:

Drugstore/Consumer Brand: The basic or entry-level fragrances found in drugstores, supermarkets, large "big box" retailers like Wal-Mart, and are typically made up of legacy brands, grooming brands, lower-tier celebrity or licensed brands, and "fallen" designer brands that have hit downmarket distribution and price points that make them equivalent to others in the category. Coty, Revlon, Claiborne, Bogart, Jovan, Antonio Banderas, and Addidas all qualify. Direct-selling or MLM brands like Avon, Oriflame, Jafra, Armand Dupree, and Mary-Kay also get this category because even though they are not sold in stores, they have similar price points and availability. Typically not discussed by enthusiasts or seen as below a standard baseline worth exploring but viewed fondly or with nostalgia by everyday people and folks specifically into old pop culture kitsch and wet shaving. Also can include commonly-found fragrance mall chains like L'Occitane, The Body Shop, or Bath & Body Works. Between $10-$69 usually

Mainstream Designer/Boutique Brand: Stuff too expensive for the big boxes, but too common for the ultra high-end retailers like Bergdorfs, Harrods, Le Bon Marche, and the like. Brands like Chanel, Dior, YSL and such. Most of your luxury department stores will handle these brands as they are designer brands, but they also get heavily discounted elsewhere like Ross or online perfume sellers such as FragranceX. If not sold in department stores, they'll often be sold in boutiques associated with the designer, like Express, Zara, Victoria Secret, or are licensed from brands that aren't designers technically, like Montblanc, Cartier, Tiffany, Bvlgari, Lalique, and the sort. Can also include more expensive boutique lines like Art of Shaving and higher-ranked celebrity or licensed brands like Sarah Jessica Parker or Bentley. Tends to be the bulk of enthusiast discussion where compliments and social proof are points of merit (i.e. Fragrantica), but not among "connoisseurs", since styles tend to be analogous to trends and many options are variations on a single theme. Ranges from $70-$129 usually

Designer Exclusive/Luxury/Niche: Classic French houses that were once considered dispensaries of luxury fit this bill, like Guerlain, Caron, Houbigant, D'Orsay, and the like. Exclusive/expensive designer lines like private lines from Chanel and Dior, or the entirety of perfume lines from Tom Ford or Louis Vuitton also make this grade, as do self-appointed luxury perfumers like Creed, Roja Dove, Amouage, Parfums de Marly, Bond. No 9, and House of SIllage. Niche brands as self-identified, offering mostly if only perfumes, and having tighter distribution, often more artistic free-license, or some marketing gimmick also meet this criteria. These include L'Artisan Parfumeur, Diptyque, Jo Malone, Byredo, Maison Francis Kurkdjian, or Juliet Has a Gun. Tends to be the bulk of discussion among enthusiasts looking for status like "fragbros", or "perfume journey" types into artistic merit and explorations of emotion/personality over mass-appeal (i.e. Basenotes). Price points versus value are hotly contended, and many also end up in discounters too. Ranges from $130-$1000+

Artisinal/Indie/DIY: Total Wild West of perfumery. No ingredient restrictions, no method standardization, no accreditation among perfumers, but also total creative freedom. Often frustratingly small, single-run semi-bespoke fragrances that will never be bottled again after selling out and can be prone to quick degradation if all-natural. Huge cause of FOMO frenzy from small fervent fanbases and prone to ridiculous gouging more than other types of limited or exclusive perfumes for this reason. Oftentimes focus is rarity or origin of ingredients over skill or style of perfumer, and sometimes perfumes are something other than alcohol/water based, being oil roll-ons or attars. Typically the "journey's end" for enthusiasts looking for presumable the most "natural smelling" perfumes or the ultimate in exclusivity, walling up like "comic book guy" in groups or threads dedicated to their favorite perfumers, but hotly contentious for everyone else outside these circles. These fragrance also tend to have "sequels" if subsequent batches are made. Price floats around $100-$800

Clone Houses: These brands sorta exist both outside and within all the other genres, as they range from outright bootlegs to more-honest "our version of" fragrances like Classic Match or Jordache that mimic styles set down by popular mainstream brands like designers, to more uniquely-packaged brands that have a modicum of concern for quality, and seek to create offerings that equate to alternatives rather than imitations of what they "clone" Sometimes in the latter case, this is because brands popular in some areas may be nigh-inaccessible in others, like the Middle Eastern houses that specialize in making takes on Western fragrances such as Rasasi, Al Haramain, Armaf, and the like. Still there are other almost niche-like clone houses like Dua, Alexandria, or Pineapple Vintage that try to clone hyped batches of fragrances where reformulations have occurred, or hyped discontinued fragrances where someone might settle for a clone, These rarely get discussed unless the clones are alternatives to something prohibitively expensive like a luxury niche scent or a discontinued fragrance selling for a high price, and themselves can vary from $10 or less to over $150.

Bonus Category - The Vintage Fragrance: Since a separate community has grown in the past 10 to 15 years concerned only with discontinued perfumes or fragrances made prior to IFRA materials restrictions or in some cases before an arbitrary cutoff (launched before 19XX or 20XX), this category has come into being. Vintage fragrances can be discontinued lines or whole brands from other categories, or be extant older batches of currently-made fragrances where enough difference in smell is claimed to make erstwhile formulas different perfumes altogether (aka "shadow of its former self" syndrome). Seemingly fragrances regardless of launch get sucked into this category if discontinued or reformulated, because the fact they're discontinued or reformulated alone gives enough merit to become valid for vintage enthusiasts, who like artisanal fans will often stick to their own spaces and not entertain anything outside of them. Prices are all aftermarket and run from $1-$1000+

Funny, after writing all that out, I sorta feel like these terms almost better fit the kind of people these fragrances appeal to than the fragrances themselves, unless you're a filthy infidel like me that plays fast and loose with all the categories simultaneously. They don't have a category for heathens like me, just usually a bouncer waiting to escort me out.
 
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oudaddict

Basenotes Dependent
Feb 2, 2017
In general, I agree with you about well-defined terms. The problem is, “designer” and “niche” are less informative than “fresh” and “white florals” regarding how fragrances smell. So, what are we really describing?

Exactly. They are useless terms. They don't give us any indication of the quality, price, or exclusivity of the fragrance.
 

Mak-7

Basenotes Dependent
Sep 19, 2019
In general, I agree with you about well-defined terms. The problem is, “designer” and “niche” are less informative than “fresh” and “white florals” regarding how fragrances smell. So, what are we really describing?

I think difference between those terms is: one describes "direction" in terms of quality and artistry, and to lesser degree price, and "fresh" and "white florals" describe scent, without pointing out to things like quality of material. You can say white floral from playboy brand, and white floral from frederic malle brand. Thats where niche and drugstore matters alot.
 

PStoller

I’m not old, I’m vintage.
Basenotes Plus
Aug 1, 2019
I think difference between those terms is: one describes "direction" in terms of quality and artistry, and to lesser degree price, and "fresh" and "white florals" describe scent, without pointing out to things like quality of material. You can say white floral from playboy brand, and white floral from frederic malle brand. Thats where niche and drugstore matters alot.

Up to a point, yes, but only that. First, let’s remember that “designer” ≠ “drugstore.” Second, that price ≠ quality. Frequently, the same perfumers are making designer and niche, albeit with slightly different briefs. The distinction gets pretty narrow. Money buys potential quality: there could be better ingredients, the perfumer could be empowered to take more risks, the formulation could reflect more time spent getting it right. But none of that is guaranteed. A dude can easily spend $400 for a one-ounce bottle of something that doesn’t smell nearly as good as Aramis or Paco Rabanne. Or even Aqua Velva.

Identifying a fragrance as niche tells me something about its nominal aspirations. But it tells me neither what it smells like nor how good it is.
 
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Mak-7

Basenotes Dependent
Sep 19, 2019
Up to a point, yes, but only that. First, let’s remember that “designer” ≠ “drugstore.” Second, that price ≠ quality. Frequently, the same perfumers are making designer and niche, albeit with slightly different briefs. The distinction gets pretty narrow. Money buys potential quality: there could be better ingredients, the perfumer could be empowered to take more risks, the formulation could reflect more time spent getting it right. But none of that is guaranteed. A dude can easily spend $400 for a once-ounce bottle of something that doesn’t smell nearly as good as Aramis or Paco Rabanne. Or even Aqua Velva.

Identifying a fragrance as niche tells me something about its nominal aspirations. But it tells me neither what it smells like nor how good it is.

You are making valid points. And i as well was taking cases of 2 extremes.
It doesnt tell you all the story, but its a start. And when you are story telling, you go piece by piece, so to me it is a logical beginning. Then, you can continue to add that its a white floral, ingredients are top notch etc etc.

Maybe it is only my experience, but very few designer work for me, they usually do have an unpleasant, scratchy chemical backbone to them. Where as niche tend to have much more naturally smelling compositions with clear note profile. Not without exceptions of course, Prin has been bad for me, nasomatto is all synthetic stuff that relies on washed off aroma where he makes you come up with what you smelling, Xerjoff starting to drop quality and artistry in compositions.
So to me, those designations of niche and designer matter alot, not a deciding factor, but first clue in a puzzle.
 

Brooks Otterlake

Basenotes Plus
Basenotes Plus
Feb 12, 2019
Or with these subcategories for niche. I wouldn't say "luxe," though. It feels misleading. "Glam" would fit better, maybe, but I wouldn't say that either. I'm undecided on the right term.
The connotations I have with the word "luxe" are such that I think it's suggestive of a "pose" rather than a reality. I would never read "luxe" as a descriptor and think that it means the item it's describing is genuinely luxurious.
 

oudaddict

Basenotes Dependent
Feb 2, 2017
Y
So to me, those designations of niche and designer matter alot, not a deciding factor, but first clue in a puzzle.

Yeah, we usually expect more quality from "niche" houses. But then many "designer" houses have prive or exclusive ranges (Tom Ford, Chanel, Dior etc.) that blow a lot of niche fragrances out of the water rendering the entire thing meaningless. It sounds to me like your biggest concern is synthetic vs natural.
 

Mak-7

Basenotes Dependent
Sep 19, 2019
Yeah, we usually expect more quality from "niche" houses. But then many "designer" houses have prive or exclusive ranges (Tom Ford, Chanel, Dior etc.) that blow a lot of niche fragrances out of the water rendering the entire thing meaningless. It sounds to me like your biggest concern is synthetic vs natural.

Naturally smelling i would say. I am not afraid of synthetic materials, prefer them extracted from plants and not oil, but have no issue with them. what matters is how they smell. Out of private lines only chanel stands up from the crowd to me. I understand from pure designation standpoint what you mean that private lines from designers are on par with niche but still rendered designer, and in my mind, they are actually niche, since they are sold only at specific brand stores, and not all over, they are higher quality and artistically much better. To me they dont necessary contradict, but being specific on words, there is a problem.
 

PStoller

I’m not old, I’m vintage.
Basenotes Plus
Aug 1, 2019
It doesn't tell you all the story, but it’s a start. And when you are story telling, you go piece by piece, so to me it is a logical beginning. Then, you can continue to add that it’s a white floral, ingredients are top notch etc etc.

Maybe it is only my experience, but very few designer work for me, they usually do have an unpleasant, scratchy chemical backbone to them. Where as niche tend to have much more naturally smelling compositions with clear note profile. Not without exceptions of course, Prin has been bad for me, nasomatto is all synthetic stuff that relies on washed off aroma where he makes you come up with what you smelling, Xerjoff starting to drop quality and artistry in compositions.
So to me, those designations of niche and designer matter alot, not a deciding factor, but first clue in a puzzle.

This is fair enough. Certainly, if you’re after costly natural ingredients or an artful simulation thereof, your odds are better with niche than at least the more accessible designer fare, though higher-end Chanel, Dior, et al. can go toe-to-toe with many of their fragrance-only competitors. (This assumes we’re not talking vintage, as some old cheapies are based on quality ingredients that are costly and/or banned today.)

I think terms like “niche” and “designer” are more useful when discussing the business and trends than when describing individual fragrances, though one can connect those things: “In 2005, the trend in niche was all about X, and Y fragrance is a perfect example.” I just think they have limited utility beyond that.
 

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